Bad breath (halitosis)
Halitosis is also known as oral malodour, or just bad breath.
The causes may be local or systemic.
Bad breath can be a health concern.
90% of malodour originates in the oral cavity, whereas the remaining 10% has systemic causes.
Oral causes and contributing factors:
- Periodontal infections
- The tongue coating harbours microorganisms
- Xerostomia (dry mouth)
- Leaking restorations that retains food and bacteria
- Unclean dentures/ retainers
- Oral pathologic lesions
- Throat infections
- Cleft palate
Systemic and non-oral factors:
- Renal or hepatic failure
- Upper respiratory; nasal passages
- Cirrhosis of the liver
- Daily plaque removal program: brushing and flossing
- Cleaning of all prostheses / retainers
- Carious lesions should be restored
- Brushing and scraping of the dorsal surface of the tongue is a daily requirement